Rajpipla is the premier State in the Gujarat States Agency and is in direct relation with Government of India through the Agent to the Governor-General for that Agency. Its Ruler ranks as Maharaja and enjoys full internal sovereignty. He is entitled to a permanent hereditary salute of 13 guns and has also a sanad for adoption.
The State lies around 21 degrees north latitude and 74 0 degrees east longitude. It is bounded in the north by the river Narmada, Chhota Udepur State and the Sankheda Mevas Estates of the Rewa-Kantha Agency; on the east by the estates of the Khandesh Mevas; on the south by the Baroda State territory, the Surat district and the river Tapti; and on the west by the district of Broach (Bharuch).
The greater portion of the valley between the Narmada and the Tapti is comprised in the Rajpipla territory. This is interspersed by hills which are a continuation of the Satpura Range. The highest peak of the Rajpipla Hills is known as Dhamanmal and is 3,000 feet above the sea-level.
The State has an area of nearly 4000 square kilometres, of which nearly 1650 are covered by forests containing in abundance timber like teak, timax, blackwood (seesum) and kher. The forests are also very rich in bamboo.
The principal rivers that water the Rajpipla lands are the Narmada, its largest tributary the Karjan and the Terav. The Tapti also waters a portion of the territories of the State in the south.
The population of the State according to the census of 1931, is 2,06,085, showing an increase of 37,660 over the census figures of 1921. Over 90 percent of the population are Hindus, the rest being Mohammadans and others.
The climate of the greater portion of the State is salubrious, though slightly malarious in some of the hilly parts during the wet season.
The soil is on the whole remarkably fertile, producing in abundance cotton, jawar, bajra, til and other grains, and also tobacco. Cotton is the principal crop and is grown extensively.
The annual revenue of the State is about Rs. 27,00,000. Rajpipla has a distinctive place of its own in ancient history. Ptolemy’s “Mountain of Agates” is no other than Ratanpur of this State. The famous cup of Ptolemy is known to have come from the agate mines of Limbodra (now Ratanpur) in the State.